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K44 Stainless Steel Characteristics

K44 18% chromium with molybdenum, titanium and niobium stabilized.

General characteristics

The principal features of our K44 grade are:

  • Very good resistance to pitting corrosion in chloride media, better than 304L (18-9L) and 316L (18-11ML) grades.
  • Insensitivity to stress cracking corrosion and intergranular corrosion.
  • Low toughness at transition temperature, even in welded zones.
  • good drawability.
  • good weldability.
  • thermal conductivity higher than that of austenitic grades, with a lower thermal expansion coefficient.

Applications

  • Hot water tanks
  • Boilers
  • Fume ducts
  • Heat exchangers
  • Sugar and sanitary tubes
  • Photovoltaic frames
  • Solar tanks
  • Solar panels
  • Cooking and catering equipment
  • Water tanks

Product range: Forms: sheets, blanks, coils, discs.
Thicknesses: 0.40 to 4 mm
(for other thicknesses, please consult us).
Width: according to thickness, consult us.
Finish: cold rolled, 2R and 2B (other finishes, please consult us).

Chemical composition

For the full technical specification, please download the K44 data sheet.

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Stainless Steel A 100% Recyclable Product

Stainless steel is the “green material” par excellence and is infinitely recyclable. Within the construction sector, its actual recovery rate is close to 100%.

It is environmentally neutral, inert and when in contact with elements such as water it does not leach compounds that might modify their composition. These qualities make it a material which is ideally suited to building and construction applications: roofs, facades, rainwater recovery systems, domestic water pipes and swimming pools as well as bridges and pedestrian bridges.

Stainless steel’s longevity fulfils the requirements of sustainable construction. A suitable choice in terms of grade, surface finish, installation and maintenance guarantees the user unrivalled service life.

Construction components in stainless steel are delivered ready to install on site reducing pollution (noise, dust, etc.). Furthermore, during demolition, these can be salvaged for re-use in recycling, adding value.

Stainless Steel 100% recycled 

Today, the material flow for stainless products demonstrates that the recycling of pre- and post-consumer stainless steel scrap is already common practice.
In the production of stainless steel, a scrap blend and other raw materials – chromium, molybdenum, nickel and other elements – are melted together in an electric furnace before going into a converter for refining. The molten stainless steel is then cast into slabs or billets, before the production of plate, sheet, coil, wire or other product forms, in preparation for use by industrial manufacturers. These manufacturers produce the stainless steel items we use every day, including cutlery, pots & pans and kitchen sinks, and inumerable architectural, industrial and other components.

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Stainless Steel and Corrosion

What is corrosion?

Metals, with the exception of the precious metals such as gold and platinum, that are found in their natural state are always extracted from ores; metals have therefore a tendency to revert to their stable state, which corresponds to their original state, that is to say their oxide form.

Metal corrosion is essentially an electro-chemical reaction at the interface between metal and surrounding environment.

Stainless Steel and the passive layer
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Contrary to carbon steel, the presence of a minimum of 10.5 % chromium in the stainless steel gives it the property of corrosion resistance.

 

However if this protective layer is damaged, the start of corrosion can appear.

 

What are the major factors of corrosion?

What are the 5 principal types of corrosion linked with the surrounding environment ?

Generalised corrosion is noticed when stainless steel is in contact with an acid medium and localised corrosion is seen in the majority of cases when stainless steel is placed in a neutral chloride environment.

 

 

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What is UGINOX® Patina K44?

UGINOX Patina K44 is a bistabilized ferritic stainless steel with an electro-tinned coating on both sides. This ferritic stainless steel is K44 and belongs to the KARA range: it contains 18% chromium and molybdenum and is stabilised with titanium and niobium. UGINOX Patina K44 weathers over time, acquiring a matt finish through natural patination giving a traditional rustic final appearance. UGINOX Patina K44 has the benefit of a high corrosion resistance, suitable for use in aggressive atmospheres.

Think Stabilised Stainless Steel !

  • Chromium is a key chemical compound, which basically gives stainless steel its corrosion resistance property. Indeed a chromiumoxide is created on the material surface in contact with air and water. This layer repairs itself and therefore protects the surface.
  • Molybdenum reinforces its corrosion resistance.

Key strengths

  • Workable at low temperatures, including in mountainous regions.
  • Ease of soldering.
  • Low thermal expansion coefficient: enables the use of long sheet lengths in single sections.
  • High corrosion resistance, suitable for use in aggressiveatmospheres.
  • Nickel-free grade offering price stability over time.
  • 100% recyclable.

Applications

  • Standing seam roofing.
  • Self supporting roofing.
  • Cleated seam roofing.
  • Suitable for cold
  • Cold roof or warm roofs.
  • Gutters.
  • Roofing accessories.

 

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UGINOX Patina K44: Atmospheric exposure

UGINOX Patina K44 is naturally resistant to corrosion and suitable for any environment.*

Roofing:
UGINOX Patina K44 will adapt to any location for roofs including coastal / marine areas and installed according to current good practices (e.g. NF DTU 40.44 French Code). When exposed to the atmosphere the Tin coating will develop a natural patina. In roofing applications the change is noticeable after a few weeks and especially following rainfall the process will be substantially complete after a few months.

Vertical cladding:
In vertical cladding or sheltered soffits the surface receives less moisture and the patina will take longer to develop. In such areas, where cleaning operations may also be required we recommend an alternative Aperam facade surface such as UGINOX Top.

Behaviour to localised corrosion
Along with the tinned coating, the corrosion resistance of the underlying base material is of primary importance.

Our dimensional range

  • Thickness: 0.5 mm
  • Maximum width: 1160 mm
  • Available in coil, slit coil and sheet

Recommendations

  • Use UGINOX Patina K44 for standing seam, self supporting and cleated seam roofing, as well as for accessories.
  • Avoid the use of UGINOX Patina K44 in vertical and sheltered areas.
  • Use dedicated tools to avoid any risk of cross contamination.
  • Do not work with other metals adjacent to UGINOX Patina K44, which could cause contamination as a result of projections.
  • Avoid the use of metallic pads or wire wool including powder based abrasives.
  • Before soldering use an orthophosphoric based acid for pickling. Use of chlorine based pickling agents is prohibited. We recommend immediate rinsing with water after soldering.

*While every care has been taken to ensure that the information contained in this article is accurate as possible it should not be used as a guide without further consultation with the manufacturer.

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Fully Supported Roofs: Standing Seam Roofs

Standing Seam Roofs

This traditional technique is distinguished by its linear rhythm; the standing seam gives it a particularly clear finish.

Assembled on site from stainless steel strips, these roofs are suited to both contemporary and traditional architecture.

The stainless steel strips are joined along their length by crimping of the previously raised edges. The bending or closing of the profile is performed in the traditional manner or using specialist tools.

The limited number of transverse seams and welds ensures maximum weathertightness. Standing seams can be used on warm or cold roofing systems.

Strengths

  • Ideal for large flat surfaces that require the use of long strips.
  • Cost reduction by the use of longer pieces and low weight per m2.
  • Not fragile and no risk of fracturing at low temperatures.
  • Immaculate aesthetics.
  • Ideal technique for curved surfaces and complex shapes (domes, cones, etc.).

Capacities relating to entirely roofing coverage types

The use of stainless steel enables the use of 14 to 30 metres lengths of strip – dependent upon national regulations – in thicknesses between 0.4 mm and 0.5 mm.
The widths installed depend on the project location (sheltered, normal or exposed) and on each country’s wind zones.

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Why stainless steel is the ideal choice for roofing and cladding

Affording freedom of form and appearance, stainless steel roofing blends into all environments and is suited to all styles of architecture, both new and renovation projects. Long lasting, easy to maintain and recyclable, it is also the sustainable material of choice.

The advantages of stainless steel for roofing and cladding…

  • Lighter envelope, thanks to high mechanical properties that permit a reduction of thickness.
  • Compatible with all types of support: metal, all types of wood, etc.
  • Possible association with construction systems giving thermal properties and/or acoustics.
  • Response to national and European thermal regulatory requirements.
  • More cost-effective than traditional products and techniques.
  • All types of claddings are possible, both new and refurbished.
  • In refurbishment, the stainless steel envelope transforms and modernises the building while respecting thermal regulations and omitting thermal bridges.
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Stainless steel, a combination of performance and aesthetics for your projects

Design

Our wide range of grades and surface finishes will let you choose stainless steel that will provide your building with continuity and sustainability thanks to corrosion resistance that is adapted to any given atmospheric environment. Furthermore, our various stainless steels have excellent physical properties even at very low temperatures. On one hand, this allows you to use thinner pieces, providing for a lower weight per m2, and on the other hand, you can use very long pieces in single sections.

Our products are transformed and easily installed using traditional tools and machinery.

Economic performance

Designing and building with stainless steel contributes to an excellent overall cost, that is a positive relationship between the final cost and the lifetime of the work. This comes as a result of the exceptional durability of stainless steel buildings, and the almost non-existent, easy maintenance.

The price stability, especially with our ferritic grades, as well as the cost of transformation and installation is comparable to other traditionally used metals, giving stainless steel its competitiveness.

Aesthetics

Stainless steel offers creative freedom and architectural design which is rarely matched. Our impressive range of thicknesses and wide range of surface finishes – from the more dull to the colourful to the most brilliant.

Stainless steel allows for the creation of complex shapes and pairs well with other materials such as glass, wood, stone, etc.

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The advantages of stainless steel in Roofing

Environment and recyclability

  • Stainless steel is a « green material » par excellence and is infinitely recyclable and recycled. Within the construction sector, its actual recovery rate is close to 100%.
  • It is unchangeable and totally inert with regard to the environment : in contact with elements such as water, it does not release compounds which could modify the composition.
  • Stainless steel’s longevity fulfils the requirements of sustainable construction.

Economic performance

  • Cost levels of stainless steel transformation are comparable with other metals traditionally used.
  • The cost of stainless steel roofing enables an excellent quality versus price ratio to be achieved in construction.
  • Choosing stainless steel offers a long-term guarantee.

Durability

  • Stainless steel is corrosion resistant, thanks to its passive layer, which allows its use in various atmospheric environments, even the most severe.
  • Stainless steel has a high strength resistance and an excellent resistance to thermal shock.
  • Stainless steel is ranked A2s1d0 for fire resistance with no toxic fume emissivity.
  • No embrittlement of stainless steel in very cold weather.

Implementation

  • On site machinery used for implementation of stainless steel is the same as for other materials.
  • Stainless steel solders easily.
  • Stainless steel can be worked in winter temperatures, which allows a longer laying period.

Design

  • Stainless steel is suited to all styles of roofing (batten rolls, standing seams, self-supporting trays), both new build and renovation projects.
  • It allows architectural creation, design and the realisation of complex shapes.
  • It combines easily with other materials (glass, wood, concrete…).
  • A low thermal expansion coefficient allows the manufacture of continuous lengths of up to 20m in a single run.

 

 

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UGINOX Top Manufacturing Process

UGINOX Top is manufactured according to the typical stainless steel manufacturing process up to the rolling operation where the patterning process takes place.

  • This engraving operation is conducted with specially prepared cylinders on a matt annealed base (2D).
  • This engraving technique used enables both a uniform and reproductible finish for the different grades and dimensions.
  • This production method is certified to the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.


The engraving is conducted during the rolling operation.


The pickling and annealing stage restores the ductility of the metal and optimises the matt finish.

A guide to the choice of grade relative to atmospheric exposure

The choice of stainless steel grade for a roofing application must take into account the environment in which the material will be used.

Our dimensional range


The UGINOX Top finish is available in coils, slit coils and sheets.
Their mechanical properties comply with norms EN 10088-2, EN 10088-4 and ASTM A 240.

Key strengths

  • This surface finish is characterised from its installation by a permanent and durable matt finish.
  • Good corrosion resistance.
  • It blends into all types of environment, both rural and urban, traditional or modern, and is suited toall styles of architecture.

Applications

  • Roofing: fully supported roofs, self-supporting roofs, batten roll roofs.
  • Facade: cassette, panels, shingles
  • Cladding : profiles.
  • Accessories: gutters, downpipes.

Construction products manufactured comply with the CE standard.